— Dr. Vera da Silva
Researcher for Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia
(National Institute for Amazon Research, Brazil)
The Amazon Rainforest is the largest rainforest in the world, as it accounts for more than a third of all tree cover across the tropics. The Amazon is home to some of the last "uncontacted" tribes who voluntarily live in isolation away from the rest of humanity. Being the largest rainforest comes with a plethora of biodiversity of flora and fauna: more than 40,000 plant species, including 16,000 tree species; 3,000 fish; 1,300 birds, 1,000 amphibians; 430 mammals, and 400 reptiles. However, being the largest rainforest also comes with the largest amount of deforestation. Between 2002 and 2019, more than 30 million hectares of primary forest was cleared from the region (about half the world’s total tropical primary forest loss during that period).
Amazon River Dolphins, also known as "Botos," can be found exclusively in the Amazon River system. In addition to be viewed as competition by fishermen, the amazon river dolphins are sought out to be used as bait for the Piracatinga catfish (also known as Mota or Capaz). In the Amazon region, fishing is a multi-billion dollar industry. The Piracatinga fish are sold in neighboring countries as a delicacy, therefore, the Piracatinga export is the most profitable fish export in the Amazon. Amazon River Dolphins are being killed at an alarming rate because of this activity.
As of 2015, the Brazilian Government implemented a five-year moratorium that banned the fishing and export of Piracatinga catfish while an alternate bait was developed. Before the moratorium was put in place, it was estimated that over 5,000 amazon river dolphins were being hunted and killed each year. While Piracatinga fishing became a federal crime with the moratorium, the activity persisted illegally because of the profitability of the export. The fish are illegally exported into the neighboring countries where they are legally sold. Currently, it is estimated that 1,500 amazon river dolphins are being hunted and killed each year. Amazon river dolphin population decreases by half every 10 years.
As of 2020, the five-year moratorium has expired and has not been renewed. Additionally, an alternate bait was never developed, therefore, it is now legal to hunt and kill the Amazon River Dolphin to be used as Piracatinga bait.
The Amazon River Dolphin is listed as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
Bergen, T. (2020, June 19). Lapsed fishing moratorium endangers Amazon river dolphins. Inhabitat. Retrieved from https://inhabitat.com/lapsed-fishing-moratorium-endangers-amazon-river-dolphins/
Butler, R. A. (2020, June 22). World Rainforest Day: The world’s great rainforests. Mongabay: News & Inspiration from Nature's Frontlines. Retrieved from https://news.mongabay.com/2020/06/the-worlds-great-rainforests/
Grieco, M. (2017). A River Below [Film]. Sandarba Films Production.
Iriarte, V., & Marmontel, M. (2013). Insights on the use of dolphins (boto, Inia geoffrensis and tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis) for bait in the piracatinga (Calophysus macropterus) fishery in the western Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, 13(2), 163-173.
Martin, A. R., & Da Silva, V. M. F. (2018). Reproductive parameters of the Amazon river dolphin or boto, Inia geoffrensis (Cetacea: Iniidae); an evolutionary outlier bucks no trends. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 123(3), 666-676.
Moore, J. E., Martin, T., & Silva, V. D. (2018). Intrinsic growth (r max) and generation time (T) estimates for Inia geoffrensis, in support of an IUCN Red List re-assessment. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Yeung, P. (2020, June 16). Amazon river dolphin risks extinction if Brazil moratorium not renewed. Mongabay: News & Inspiration from Nature's Frontlines. Retrieved from https://news.mongabay.com/2020/06/amazon-river-dolphin-risks-extinction-if-brazil-moratorium-not-renewed/
Your support and contributions will enable us to meet our goals and improve conditions. Your generous donation will fund our mission.